Mobility and the sharing economy: industry developments and early understanding of impacts
Shared mobility-the shared use of a vehicle, bicycle, or other mode-is an innovative transportation strategy that enables users to gain short-term access to transportation modes on an “as-needed”basis. Shared mobility includes various forms of carsharing, bikesharing, ridesharing, for-hire driver services, and microtransit. In addition, smartphone and mobile “apps”aggregate and optimize these mobility services and are critical to many shared mobility modes. Courier network services connect couriers using their personal vehicles or bicycles with freight and seek to disrupt the existing package and food delivery industry. The emergence of automated vehicles into shared mobility could further transform the passenger and freight transportation system, with greater emphasis on shared mobility. This chapter describes the different models that have emerged in the shared mobility space and reviews research that has quantified the environmental, social, and transportation-related impacts of these services. The authors also project future trends as automated vehicles begin to emerge.