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The transmitter

The transmitter

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Transceiver and System Design for Digital Communications, 5th Edition — Recommend this title to your library

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The transmitter is responsible for formatting, encoding, modulating, and upconverting the data communicated over the link using the required power output according to the link budget analysis. The transmitter section is also responsible for spreading the signal using various spread spectrum techniques. Several digital modulation waveforms are discussed in this chapter. The primary types of digital modulation using direct sequence methods to phase modulate a carrier are detailed, including diagrams and possible design solutions. A block diagram showing the basic components of a typical transmitter is shown in Figure 2.1.

Chapter Contents:

  • 2.1 Basic functions of the transmitter
  • 2.1.1 Transmit antenna
  • 2.1.2 Transmit/receive device
  • 2.1.3 RF power amplifier
  • 2.1.4 Crest factor
  • 2.1.5 Upconverter
  • 2.1.6 Sum and difference frequencies generated in the upconversion process
  • 2.2 Voltage standing wave ratio
  • 2.2.1 Maximum power transfer principle
  • 2.3 Analog and digital communications
  • 2.3.1 Digital-versus-analog communications
  • 2.3.2 Software programmable radios and cognitive radios
  • 2.4 Digital modulation
  • 2.4.1 Binary phase-shift keying
  • 2.4.2 Quadrature phase-shift keying
  • 2.4.3 Offset QPSK
  • 2.4.4 Higher order PSK
  • 2.4.5 BPSK versus QPSK constellation comparison
  • 2.4.6 8-Level PSK
  • 2.4.7 p/4 differential QPSK
  • 2.4.8 16-Offset quadrature amplitude modulation
  • 2.4.9 Phasor constellations and noise immunity
  • 2.4.10 Continuous phase PSK
  • 2.4.10.1 Spectral efficiency
  • 2.4.10.2 Spectral regrowth
  • 2.4.10.3 Summary of advantages using CP-PSK
  • 2.4.11 Summary of PSK modulations
  • 2.4.12 Differential phase-shift keying
  • 2.4.12.1 Advantages and disadvantages of differential modulation
  • 2.4.13 Minimum shift keying
  • 2.4.14 Frequency-shift keying
  • 2.4.15 Sidelobe reduction methods
  • 2.4.16 Ideal shaping filter
  • 2.5 Direct sequence spread spectrum
  • 2.5.1 Frequency-hopping spread spectrum
  • 2.5.2 Spread spectrum
  • 2.5.3 Jammer resistance
  • 2.5.4 Despreading to realize process gain in the spread spectrum system
  • 2.5.5 Maximal length sequence codes
  • 2.5.6 Maximal length PN code generator
  • 2.5.7 Maximal length PN code taps
  • 2.5.8 Gold codes
  • 2.5.9 Other codes
  • 2.5.10 Spectral lines in the frequency domain
  • 2.6 Other forms of spread spectrum transmissions
  • 2.6.1 Time hopping
  • 2.6.2 Chirped-FM
  • 2.7 Multiple users
  • 2.7.1 Other methods for multiuser techniques
  • 2.7.2 Orthogonal signals
  • 2.7.3 Quadrature phase detection of two signals
  • 2.7.4 Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
  • 2.7.5 Other OFDM techniques
  • 2.8 Power control
  • 2.9 Summary
  • 2.10 Problems
  • Further reading

Inspec keywords: encoding; spread spectrum communication; radio transmitters; phase modulation; data communication

Other keywords: data formatting; direct sequence methods; spread spectrum techniques; data modulation; data upconversion; link budget analysis; transmitter; data communication; phase modulation; data encoding; digital modulation waveforms

Subjects: Radio links and equipment; Codes

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