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Application cases of secret key generation in communication nodes and terminals

Application cases of secret key generation in communication nodes and terminals

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The main objective of this chapter is to study explicit key extraction techniques and algorithms for the security of radio communication. After some recalls on the main processing steps (Figure 19.1(a)) and on theoretical results relevant to the radio wiretap model (Figure 19.1(b)), we detail recent experimental results on randomness properties of real field radio channels. Furthermore, we detail a practical implantation of secret key generation (SKG) schemes, based on the Channel Quantization Alternate (CQA) algorithm helped with channel decorrelation techniques, into modern public networks such as WiFi and radio-cells of fourth generation (LTE, long-term evolution). Finally, through realistic simulations and real field experiments of radio links, we analyze the security performance of the implemented SKG schemes, and highlight their significant practical results and perspectivesfor future implantations into existing and next-generation radio standards.

Chapter Contents:

  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Fundamental aspects of secret key generation
  • 19.2.1 Channel-based random bit generators
  • 19.2.1.1 A shared source owing to reciprocity
  • 19.2.1.2 Randomness owing to multipath propagation
  • 19.2.1.3 Confidentiality
  • 19.2.2 Metrics for secret key generation assessment
  • 19.2.3 Impact of channel characteristics
  • 19.3 Integration of secret key generation into existing radio access technologies
  • 19.3.1 Practical secret key generation scheme
  • 19.3.1.1 Channel estimation - application case to OFDM signals
  • 19.3.1.2 Channel decorrelation
  • 19.3.1.3 Quantization
  • 19.3.1.4 Information reconciliation
  • 19.3.1.5 Privacy amplification
  • 19.3.2 Simulation results from single sense recorded signals
  • 19.3.2.1 Impact of the SKG preprocessing step on the randomness of generated keys
  • 19.3.2.2 Evaluation of the randomness of the keys using NIST statistical tests
  • 19.3.2.3 Entropy estimation and analysis
  • 19.3.3 Simulation results from dual sense LTE signals
  • 19.3.3.1 Simulators
  • 19.3.3.2 Channel coefficient estimates
  • 19.3.3.3 Simulations scenarios and parameters
  • 19.3.3.4 Simulation results
  • 19.3.3.5 Discussion
  • 19.3.4 Experimental results from dual sense WiFi signals
  • 19.3.4.1 WiFi Test bed and measurement environment
  • 19.3.4.2 Processing applied for bidirectional sounding exchange
  • 19.3.4.3 Practical implantation of SKG from bidirectional channel estimates by WiFi chipsets
  • 19.3.4.4 Results without channel decorrelation processing
  • 19.3.4.5 Results with channel decorrelation processing
  • 19.4 Conclusion: security upgrades opportunities for radio access technologies
  • 19.4.1 Existing vulnerabilities
  • 19.4.2 Proposed solutions for securing radio access protocols with secret key generation
  • 19.4.3 Practical usage of secret key generation into radio access technologies
  • References

Inspec keywords: Long Term Evolution; decorrelation; telecommunication security; quantisation (signal); wireless channels; next generation networks; cryptography

Other keywords: radio-cells; public networks; WiFi; radio communication security; LTE; next-generation radio standards; channel decorrelation techniques; CQA algorithm; secret key generation schemes; channel quantization alternate algorithm; communication nodes; Long-Term Evolution; SKG schemes; communication terminals

Subjects: Mobile radio systems; Cryptography; Signal processing and detection

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