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Transmission networks

Transmission networks

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This chapter considered how the various transmission systems described in Chapter 4 are used to construct transmission networks. In Section 5.2 we addressed the Access Network, covering the ubiquitous copper local loop network, as well as the use optical fibre and microwave radio. We noted that a key aspect is the ability of the Access Network to carry increasingly higher capacities to the residential and small business users - the so-called `broadband access' - as well as for the larger business customers. Some of the factors influencing the network operators' choice of broadband technology were discussed. The importance of the planning, operational and regulatory issues for the Access Network was also described. In Section 5.3 we considered the structure of the Core Transmission Network and the role of the Core Transmission Stations at the transmission nodes, looking at: PDH networks; SDH networks Finally, the various ways in which the resilience of the Core Transmission Network can be increased were identified. A simple example of dimensioning a Core Transmission Network in association with the switched telephony network is given in Chapter 6. Subsequent chapters describe intelligence, signalling, data and mobile networks.

Chapter Contents:

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Access networks
  • 5.2.1 Scene setting
  • 5.2.2 The copper (local loop) access network
  • 5.2.3 The optical fibre access network
  • 5.2.3.1 Direct fibre to the premises
  • 5.2.3.2 Passive optical network delivery
  • 5.2.3.3 Hybrid fibre-copper telephony delivery
  • 5.2.4 Radio access network
  • 5.2.4.1 Fixed line-of-sight microwave radio
  • 5.2.4.2 Wireless LANs
  • 5.2.4.3 WiMax
  • 5.2.5 Broadband access for the small business and residential market
  • 5.2.5.1 ADSL and the unbundling of the local loop
  • 5.2.5.2 Broadband options for the access network
  • 5.2.6 The future of fixed line telephony
  • 5.2.7 Planning and operational issues
  • 5.2.7.1 Provision of a new subscriber's line
  • 5.2.7.2 Spare plant
  • 5.3 Core transmission networks
  • 5.3.1 Scene setting
  • 5.3.2 PDH network
  • 5.3.3 SDH network
  • 5.3.4 Carrier Ethernet backhaul links
  • 5.3.5 Transmission network resilience
  • 5.3.5.1 Transmission-circuit level: switching at digital cross-connection units
  • 5.3.5.2 Transmission path level: diversity
  • 5.3.5.3 Transmission path level: SDH and SONET rings
  • 5.3.5.4 Transmission-media level: use of spare links and service protection network (SPN)
  • 5.3.5.5 Physical media level
  • 5.4 Summary
  • References

Inspec keywords: subscriber loops; broadband networks; telephony; mobile radio

Other keywords: microwave radio; operational issues; transmission nodes; optical fibre; synchronous digital hierarchy networks; mobile network; regulatory issues; ubiquitous copper local loop network; broadband technology; switched telephony network; small business users; SDH networks; data networks; core transmission stations; business customers; core transmission network; access network; residential business users; PDH networks; plesiochronous digital hierarchy networks; planning issues; broadband access; network operators

Subjects: Mobile radio systems; Subscriber loops; Telephony

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