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Antenna/human body interactions in the 60 GHz band: state of knowledge and recent advances

Antenna/human body interactions in the 60 GHz band: state of knowledge and recent advances

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In this chapter, we presented a review of the state-of-the-art, recent advances, and remaining challenges in the field of antenna/human body interactions in the 60 GHz band, with a particular emphasis on the near-field interactions that may occur in emerging body-centric MMW applications. For new near-field exposure scenarios expected to appear in coming years, today there is no any clear regulation in terms of the exposure assessment, and standard methodologies for compliance testing are not available in the 60 GHz band. Most of the exposure guidelines and standards recommend IPD as a dosimetric quantity. It cannot be directly used as a metric for near-field exposures since practically it is very challenging, if not impossible, to determine numerically or experimentally local IPD under near-field conditions. Some reports suggest that temperature rise could be used as an exposure metric at MMW. However, in practice, it is not always possible because of some limitations discussed in this chapter. We suggest to use eIPD as a metric; it can be conveniently retrieved from SAR computations and/or measurements and takes into account the perturbation of the wireless device radiation due to the body proximity.

Chapter Contents:

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Emerging body-centric applications at millimetre waves
  • 5.2.1 Heterogeneous mobile networks
  • 5.2.2 Body-to-body secured communications
  • 5.2.3 Radar-on-chip for gesture and movement recognition
  • 5.2.4 e-Health monitoring and medical applications
  • 5.3 General features of interaction of millimetre waves with the human body
  • 5.3.1 Target organs and tissues
  • 5.3.2 EM properties of tissues
  • 5.4 Plane wave illumination at the air/skin interface
  • 5.4.1 Reflection and transmission
  • 5.4.2 Absorption
  • 5.4.3 Impact of clothing
  • 5.4.4 Heating
  • 5.5 Exposure limits: guidelines and standards
  • 5.5.1 Dosimetry metrics
  • 5.5.2 Exposure limits
  • 5.6 Antennas for body-centric communications
  • 5.6.1 On-body communications
  • 5.6.2 Off-body communications
  • 5.7 Experimental skin-equivalent models
  • 5.7.1 Semi-solid phantom: EM model
  • 5.7.2 Semi-solid phantom: thermal model
  • 5.7.3 Solid phantom
  • 5.8 Near-field coupling between antennas and human body
  • 5.8.1 Tools for the exposure assessment
  • 5.8.2 Impact of the feeding type
  • 5.8.3 Heating of tissues
  • 5.8.4 Electrotextiles for the exposure reduction
  • 5.9 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Inspec keywords: antennas; radio networks

Other keywords: wireless device radiation; body-centric MMW applications; standard methodologies; near-field exposure; frequency 60 GHz; exposure metric; near field interactions; antenna-human body interactions; exposure assessment; body proximity

Subjects: Radio links and equipment; Single antennas

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