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Solar–water desalination for small communities

Solar–water desalination for small communities

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The use of solar-water desalination is one of the most promising and environment friendly means to meet the ever-increasing demand of fresh water in freshwater-scarce communities. Unfortunately, desalination of water is a highly energy-intensive process. Nonetheless, direct solar-water desalination is simple in design, low in cost, and can easily support the daily use of communities. This chapter describes various types of solar-water desalination with a focus on technologies that are suitable for small communities and remote areas. Mathematical modeling of direct solar-water desalination based on convective, radiative, and evaporative heat transfer has been provided. A case study from Pasni, District Gwadar, Balochistan of Pakistan involving design, fabrication, and cost is included to give an overview of the practical operation of technology.

Chapter Contents:

  • Abstract
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Types of solar–water desalination
  • 6.2.1 Direct solar–water desalination systems
  • 6.2.1.1 Single-effect solar stills
  • 6.2.1.2 Multieffect basin stills
  • 6.2.1.3 Flat plate collector solar stills
  • 6.2.1.4 Flat plate collector in forced circulation mode
  • 6.2.1.5 Flat plate collector in natural circulation mode
  • 6.3 Mathematical modeling of an inclined solar still
  • 6.3.1 Convective heat transfer
  • 6.3.2 Radiative heat transfer
  • 6.3.3 Evaporative heat transfer
  • 6.3.4 Annual cost of water production
  • 6.4 Community to study
  • 6.5 Future outlook of renewable energy in Pakistan
  • 6.5.1 Energy security
  • 6.5.2 Economic benefits
  • 6.5.3 Social equity
  • 6.5.4 Environmental protection
  • 6.5.5 Future development of renewable energy
  • 6.6 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References

Inspec keywords: convection; desalination; solar power

Other keywords: direct solar-water desalination; small communities; Pakistan; Balochistan; radiative heat transfer; energy-intensive process; Pasni; mathematical modeling; evaporative heat transfer; District Gwadar; convective heat transfer; freshwater-scarce communities

Subjects: Power applications in water treatment and supply; Other energy utilisation; Solar energy; Energy resources

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