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Battery-based storage for communities

Battery-based storage for communities

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Instantaneous load demand variations and fluctuations introduced by renewable energy sources (RESs) to the system, pose various challenges to the operation of the grid. Significant support to the grid can be provided by energy storage systems (ESSs) strategically placed and sized. In the presence of ESSs combined with RESs proximate to load centres, transmission losses are minimized and grid infrastructure upgrades are deferred, due to local generation and consumption of electric energy. This is without the need to transfer energy from remote power plants. Furthermore, ESSs introduce considerable flexibility to electric energy, which can now be consumed when it is needed the most (e.g. during the on-peak period). As a result, the loading levels of the grid components are reduced and the terminal voltages are maintained within the allowable limits. This chapter presents an in-depth study of battery storage for communities and an analysis of major battery-storage technology and application. This includes another special form of distributed energy storage - the electric vehicle.

Chapter Contents:

  • Abstract
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Technology of battery storage
  • 10.2.1 Conventional and advanced lead-acid batteries
  • 10.2.2 Lithium-ion batteries
  • 10.2.3 Sodium–sulphur batteries
  • 10.2.4 Battery storage in power applications
  • 10.3 Challenges of EV penetration in distribution grid
  • 10.3.1 PEVs in communities
  • 10.3.2 EV charging technologies
  • 10.3.3 Infrastructure and control
  • 10.3.4 Grid stability
  • 10.3.5 Limitations
  • 10.4 Economic aspects of battery storage
  • 10.4.1 Cost metric
  • 10.4.2 Effective cost of a battery
  • 10.4.3 System cost breakdown
  • 10.5 Energy consumption pattern of a community
  • 10.5.1 Regulated power supply
  • 10.5.1.1 Average daily power usage – all samples
  • 10.5.2 Energy usage pattern classification
  • 10.5.2.1 Double peak type
  • 10.5.2.2 Single peak type
  • 10.5.2.3 Mountain type
  • 10.5.2.4 Valley type
  • 10.5.2.5 Analysis
  • 10.5.3 Peak apparent power (VA) identification
  • 10.5.4 Summary
  • 10.6 Selection process of battery storage
  • 10.6.1 Criteria participating in the selection processes
  • 10.6.2 Weighting description and TCFs identification
  • 10.7 Safety consideration
  • 10.7.1 Safety hazard of batteries and mitigation
  • 10.7.2 Location of installation
  • 10.7.3 Battery storage enclosure
  • 10.7.4 Safety policies and standards
  • 10.8 Conclusion
  • References

Inspec keywords: power grids; battery storage plants; energy consumption; renewable energy sources

Other keywords: remote power plants; energy storage systems; distributed energy storage; transmission losses; load centres; renewable energy sources; electric energy consumption; battery-storage technology; instantaneous load demand variations; local generation; grid infrastructure upgrades; terminal voltages; grid components; ESSs; RESs; electric vehicle

Subjects: Other power stations and plants

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