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Wave loads on monopile-supported offshore wind turbines: current methods and future challenges

Wave loads on monopile-supported offshore wind turbines: current methods and future challenges

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This chapter provides an overview of the methods recently proposed for the prediction of the wave loads on fixed-bottom wind turbines, with particular emphasis on the role of nonlinear wave contributions in the assessment of the dynamic response of the support structure. After a brief presentation of the common numerical approaches to the simulation of OWTs, we review the fundamental equations governing the wave motions, briefly present a numerical method for the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear (FNL) problem and finally summarize the main commonly used analytical wave theories. The available hydrodynamic loading models are discussed, and an overview of the main literature findings and open issues in modelling the nonlinear resonant effects follows. Some key examples of the effects of highly nonlinear waves on the response of a 5-MW OWT are given and finally, a conclusion summarizes the current situation and future trends.

Chapter Contents:

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Hydro–aero–servo–elastic coupled simulation models
  • 2.3 Wave kinematics
  • 2.3.1 Governing equations
  • 2.3.2 Method of solution
  • 2.3.2.1 The HOBEM solver
  • 2.3.3 Analytical wave theories
  • 2.3.4 Nondeterministic representation of waves
  • 2.3.5 A domain decomposition approach to account for fully nonlinear random waves
  • 2.4 Hydrodynamic loading models
  • 2.4.1 Morison equation
  • 2.4.2 Slender body theory
  • 2.4.3 Perturbation theories
  • 2.5 Nonlinear resonant effects
  • 2.5.1 Ringing and springing
  • 2.5.2 Ringing and secondary loading cycle
  • 2.5.3 Role of wave kinematics and hydrodynamic model
  • 2.6 Dynamic response of an offshore wind turbine
  • 2.6.1 Effects of fully nonlinear waves
  • 2.6.1.1 Response in parked and power production states
  • 2.6.2 Effects of different wind conditions
  • 2.6.2.1 Parked state
  • 2.6.2.2 Power-production state
  • 2.6.2.3 A remark on wind–waves misalignment
  • 2.6.3 Limitation of the second-order wave model
  • 2.6.3.1 Power spectral densities
  • 2.7 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Inspec keywords: hydrodynamics; offshore installations; mechanical stability; foundations; wind turbines; ocean waves

Other keywords: fixed-bottom wind turbines; nonlinear wave contributions; nonlinear resonant effects; Wave loads; wave motions; dynamic response; power 5 MW; numerical method; monopile-supported offshore wind turbines; highly nonlinear waves; analytical wave theories; hydrodynamic loading models; support structure; fully nonlinear problem

Subjects: Buckling and instability (mechanical engineering); Applied fluid mechanics; Fluid mechanics and aerodynamics (mechanical engineering); Geotechnical structures; Waves in fluid dynamics; Power and plant engineering (mechanical engineering); Wind power plants

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