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Energy management systems for dc microgrids

Energy management systems for dc microgrids

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With the application of dc microgrids at different scales and topologies, it is possible to integrate different energy sources (such PV systems, fuel cells and batteries) into the energy mix of a larger system with lower conversion requirements. Moreover, it is much easier and cheaper to convert ac power into dc power which, in turn, helps economic operation of future energy systems. By using dc microgrids, it is also possible to achieve energy savings up to a great extent (~15%) and to improve system reliability by reducing the number of devices required and the total points of failure. The dc architecture also enables cost-effective and green solutions for operation and control of zero-net energy residential/office buildings as well as data centers. However, such optimal performance mainly depends on the proper design and application of EMSs which effectively manage the process of energy production and consumption based on predefined objectives and constraints. There are, definitely, a number of challenges in this regard which have to be suitably addressed. Currently, there is a lack of approved standards and technical codes for dc equipment and distribution networks at low voltage. There is also a lack of approved and recognized dc architectures at low-to-medium voltage levels which in turn necessitates different safety and protection practices in comparison with conventional ac systems. Last but not least, there is a strong need for upgrading the existing infrastructure to accommodate dc systems and interfaces.

Chapter Contents:

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 DC microgrid operation and control fundamentals
  • 5.2.1 Power/energy management schemes
  • 5.2.1.1 Interactive power/energy management strategies
  • 5.2.1.2 Passive power/energy management strategies
  • 5.2.2 Control schemes
  • 5.2.2.1 Local control functionalities
  • 5.2.2.2 Coordinated control
  • 5.3 Interfacing converter control strategies for power/energy management purposes
  • 5.3.1 Voltage control/grid-forming mode
  • 5.3.2 Current control/grid-following mode
  • 5.4 Illustrative example
  • 5.5 Conclusions
  • References

Inspec keywords: power system control; distributed power generation; power system management; DC power transmission; energy management systems

Other keywords: zero-net energy office buildings; energy management systems; dc microgrids; low voltage; safety practices; distribution networks; energy savings; system reliability; data centers; zero-net energy residential buildings; infrastructure upgrade; energy sources integration; protection; optimal performance; low-to-medium voltage; conversion requirements; economic operation

Subjects: Power system management, operation and economics; Distributed power generation; Control of electric power systems; Power system control; d.c. transmission

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