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Substation HV equipment design

Substation HV equipment design

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Substation HV equipment comprises a wide variety of power network assets that are connected together, usually by busbars, to form the types of substation layouts described in Chapter 8. This chapter will examine underpinning design principles and performance characteristics of the main items of substation equipment, which are as follows: Circuit breakers (CBs), Earth switches, Disconnectors, Interlocking, Power transformers, Reactors, Quadrature boosters (QBs), Manually switched capacitors (MSCs), Static VAr compensators (SVCs), Voltage transformers (VTs), Current transformers (CTs).

Chapter Contents:

  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Circuit breakers
  • 9.2.1 Circuit breaker — duty
  • 9.2.2 Arc interruption mechanism
  • 9.3 Circuit breaker switching duties
  • 9.3.1 Circuit breaker interrupter duties — summary
  • 9.3.1.1 Short-circuit fault current interruption — fault at circuit breaker terminals
  • 9.3.1.2 Short-circuit fault current interruption — short line fault
  • 9.3.1.3 Load current interruption — resistive loads
  • 9.3.1.4 Load current interruption — inductive loads
  • 9.3.1.5 Load current interruption — capacitive loads
  • 9.3.1.6 Circuit breaker opening — asynchronous switching
  • 9.3.1.7 Current interruption modern circuit breakers
  • 9.4 Arc interruption mediums and methods
  • 9.4.1 Arc interruption mediums and methods — categories
  • 9.4.1.1 Oil circuit breakers
  • 9.4.1.2 Vacuum circuit breakers
  • 9.4.1.3 Air blast circuit breaker
  • 9.4.1.4 Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) circuit breaker
  • 9.5 Circuit-breaker-type classification
  • 9.5.1 Circuit breaker type — characteristics
  • 9.5.2 Circuit-breaker-type and voltage-range classification
  • 9.6 Circuit breaker tripping and close times
  • 9.6.1 Tripping and closing considerations
  • 9.6.1.1 Circuit breaker tripping time
  • 9.6.1.2 Circuit breaker closing considerations
  • 9.6.1.3 Resistance switching and capacitance grading
  • 9.6.1.4 Trip and close operating mechanism
  • 9.6.1.5 Point on wave switching
  • 9.6.1.6 Trip and close-coil circuitry
  • 9.7 Circuit-breaker specification
  • 9.7.1 Electrical design specification
  • 9.7.2 Circuit-breaker specification standards
  • 9.8 Earthing devices
  • 9.8.1 Earthing switches — design characteristics
  • 9.8.2 Metalclad switchgear
  • 9.8.3 Portable earths
  • 9.8.4 Interlocking and indications
  • 9.8.5 Earthing device ratings
  • 9.9 Disconnectors
  • 9.9.1 Disconnectors — design characteristics
  • 9.9.2 Metalclad switchgear
  • 9.9.3 Disconnector interlocking and indications
  • 9.9.4 Sequential disconnectors
  • 9.9.5 Disconnector ratings
  • 9.10 Interlocking
  • 9.10.1 Interlocking — purpose
  • 9.10.1.1 Operational interlocking
  • 9.10.1.2 Safety interlocking
  • 9.10.1.3 Metalclad switchgear
  • 9.10.2 Computer-based interlock systems
  • 9.11 Power transformers
  • 9.11.1 Power transformers — introduction
  • 9.11.1.1 Transformer design — key considerations
  • 9.11.1.2 Tap changer
  • 9.11.1.3 Transformer protective devices
  • 9.11.1.4 Transformer ratings
  • 9.11.1.5 Transformer overfluxing
  • 9.11.1.6 Transformer noise
  • 9.11.1.7 Transformer physical size and weight
  • 9.11.1.8 Transformer tertiary windings
  • 9.11.1.9 Operation of transformers in parallel
  • 9.11.1.10 Capitalisation of transformer losses
  • 9.11.1.11 Transformer specification
  • 9.12 Reactors
  • 9.12.1 Reactor types
  • 9.13 Quadrature boosters
  • 9.13.1 Quadrature boosters — purpose
  • 9.13.2 Quadrature booster — winding arrangements
  • 9.13.3 Quadrature booster theory
  • 9.13.4 Quadrature booster — physical arrangement
  • 9.14 Manually switched capacitors
  • 9.14.1 Manually switched capacitors — purpose
  • 9.14.2 MSC connection arrangements
  • 9.15 Static VAr compensators
  • 9.15.1 FACTS technology
  • 9.15.1.1 TCR fundamentals
  • 9.15.1.2 TCR harmonic filter
  • 9.15.1.3 Thyristor switched capacitor (TSC) arrangements
  • 9.15.2 SVC alternative arrangements
  • 9.15.3 SVC application
  • 9.16 Voltage transformers
  • 9.16.1 Voltage transformer — overview
  • 9.16.2 Voltage transformers — types
  • 9.17 Current transformers
  • 9.17.1 Current transformers — overview
  • 9.17.2 Current transformer ratings
  • 9.17.3 Current transformer accuracy
  • 9.17.4 Current transformer — locations

Inspec keywords: switched capacitor filters; current transformers; busbars; substations; potential transformers; circuit breakers; static VAr compensators; power transformers

Other keywords: QB; SVC; Earth switches; substation layouts; current transformers; underpinning design principles; circuit breakers; CT; MSC; manually switched capacitors; reactors; power transformers; substation HV equipment design; performance characteristics; CB; power network assets; busbars; static VAr compensators; voltage transformers; VT; interlocking; quadrature boosters; disconnectors

Subjects: Switchgear; Substations; Other power apparatus and electric machines; Transformers and reactors

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