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Protection and control systems design

Protection and control systems design

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High Voltage Power Network Construction — Recommend this title to your library

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This chapter will summarise the fundamentals of protection and control systems design and consider the practical application with reference to the requirements of power network construction.Protection systems automatically detect and remove faults from the power system. Equally important are control systems which provide operational information and enable the manual and automatic operation and reconfiguration of the power system.

Chapter Contents:

  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Protection types and operating characteristics
  • 10.2.1 Protection types — introduction
  • 10.2.1.1 Protection terminology
  • 10.2.1.2 Protection purpose and objectives
  • 10.2.1.3 Protection system fundamentals
  • 10.2.1.4 Protection relay historical development
  • 10.3 Overcurrent and earth-fault protection
  • 10.3.1 Overcurrent and earth-fault protection circuitry
  • 10.3.2 IDMTL overcurrent and earth-fault relay — operating characteristics
  • 10.3.3 IDMTL relay — settings and grading
  • 10.3.4 IDMT relay — natural grading
  • 10.3.5 Instantaneous overcurrent relay
  • 10.4 Directional overcurrent protection
  • 10.4.1 Directional relays — fundamentals
  • 10.4.2 Directional overcurrent relay
  • 10.4.3 Directional earth-fault relay
  • 10.5 High-impedance circulating current protection
  • 10.5.1 High-impedance circulating current — background
  • 10.5.2 Circulating current protection — principles
  • 10.5.3 High-impedance circulating current — stability voltage
  • 10.5.4 High-impedance circulating current — primary operating current
  • 10.5.5 High-impedance circulating current — applications
  • 10.6 Transformer protection
  • 10.6.1 Two winding transformer — biased differential protection
  • 10.6.2 Restricted earth-fault protection
  • 10.6.3 Autotransformer overall differential protection
  • 10.6.4 Two-stage overcurrent protection
  • 10.6.5 Two-stage standby-earth-fault (SBEF) relay
  • 10.6.6 Transformer HV high-set overcurrent (HSOC)
  • 10.6.7 Buchholz and winding temperature protection
  • 10.7 Feeder-unit protection
  • 10.7.1 Feeder-unit protection — principles
  • 10.7.1.1 Pilot-wire protection
  • 10.8 Power line carrier protection
  • 10.8.1 Power line carrier protection — background
  • 10.8.2 Power line carrier protection — equipment and performance
  • 10.9 Numeric feeder-unit protection
  • 10.9.1 Numeric feeder-unit protection — considerations
  • 10.9.1.1 Continuous measurement
  • 10.9.1.2 GPS synchronised time
  • 10.9.2 Relay characteristics
  • 10.9.3 Settings considerations
  • 10.10 Distance protection
  • 10.10.1 Distance protection — introduction
  • 10.10.1.1 Distance protection — comparators
  • 10.10.1.2 Plain distance protection application
  • 10.10.1.3 Impedance measurement
  • 10.10.1.4 Relay polarisation
  • 10.10.1.5 Minimum line length
  • 10.10.1.6 Zone 3 setting limits
  • 10.10.1.7 Blocked distance protection
  • 10.10.1.8 Three-ended circuits
  • 10.10.1.9 Transformer feeders
  • 10.10.1.10 Composite feeders
  • 10.11 Busbar protection
  • 10.11.1 Busbar protection — overview
  • 10.11.1.1 Distribution network busbar protection
  • 10.11.1.2 High-impedance busbar protection
  • 10.11.1.3 Numeric busbar protection
  • 10.12 Circuit breaker fail protection
  • 10.12.1 Circuit breaker fail — requirements
  • 10.12.2 Circuit breaker fail protection — numeric relays
  • 10.13 Protection, control and telecomms — communication channels
  • 10.13.1 Communication channel requirements
  • 10.13.2 Communication channel mediums
  • 10.13.3 Communications equipment — requirements
  • 10.14 Inter-tripping
  • 10.14.1 Inter-tripping — application
  • 10.14.2 Unstabilisation, fault throwers and neutral voltage displacement protection
  • 10.15 Protection application
  • 10.15.1 Protection application considerations
  • 10.15.2 Protection application — feeders
  • 10.15.3 Protection application — transformers
  • 10.15.4 Protection application — complex circuits
  • 10.16 Protection and control settings
  • 10.16.1 Protection and control settings policy
  • 10.16.1.1 Settings policy — power system level
  • 10.16.1.2 Settings policy — relay-specific level
  • 10.17 Control systems
  • 10.17.1 Control systems — introduction
  • 10.18 Voltage control
  • 10.18.1 Voltage control — introduction
  • 10.18.1.1 ATCC performance characteristics
  • 10.18.1.2 ATCC types
  • 10.18.1.3 Voltage control strategy
  • 10.18.1.4 Automatic reactive switching (ARS) scheme
  • 10.19 Synchronising
  • 10.19.1 Synchronising relay — purpose
  • 10.19.2 Voltage selection scheme
  • 10.20 Auto-switching
  • 10.20.1 Auto-switching — introduction
  • 10.20.1.1 Auto-reclose application
  • 10.20.1.2 Single-shot auto-reclose
  • 10.20.1.3 High-speed auto-reclose
  • 10.20.1.4 Delayed auto-reclose
  • 10.20.1.5 Mesh substation auto-switching
  • 10.20.1.6 Trip relay reset and persistent inter-tripping signal
  • 10.21 Operational tripping
  • 10.21.1 Operational tripping — requirements
  • 10.22 SCADA system
  • 10.22.1 SCADA system — overview
  • 10.22.2 SCADA system — design
  • 10.22.3 SCS design requirements
  • 10.23 Protection and control accommodation
  • 10.23.1 Relay panel requirements
  • 10.23.2 Cubicle design and practical considerations
  • 10.24 Protection and control asset replacement
  • 10.24.1 Asset replacement considerations
  • 10.25 Batteries and DC supplies
  • 10.25.1 Battery systems
  • 10.25.1.1 The lead—acid Plante battery
  • 10.25.1.2 The recombination cell
  • 10.25.1.3 DC supply arrangements
  • 10.25.1.4 Relay and trip coil voltage limits
  • 10.25.1.5 Battery sizing

Inspec keywords: fault diagnosis; power system faults; power system protection; power system control

Other keywords: power network construction; control system design; fault removal; automatic operation; protection system design; power system reconfiguration; fault detection

Subjects: Power system control; Power system protection

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