Towards the extensive use of renewable energy resources: needs, conditions and enabling technologies

Towards the extensive use of renewable energy resources: needs, conditions and enabling technologies

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This chapter has justified the choice of the PTP standard for coordinating all of the equipment located in an installation as the most appropriate way of extending it to other installations in a wide geographical area. It is possible to reduce the amount of equipment equipped with GPS, but guaranteeing the synchronism with a quality equivalent to 1 ms. An intelligent network must evolve dynamically according to demand. In this context, it is essential to maintain a control of the stability of the network in a greater number of control points. The current technology has lowered the costs of high-performance electronic systems. As discussed in this chapter, PMUs or synchrophasors are an essential piece, and their integration into the IEC 61850 standard allows a local and centralised management system to be defined that cooperates with other systems located in the network, such as SPQAs and intelligent inverters.

Chapter Contents:

  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Measurement and assessment of the renewable generation
  • 6.2.1 Use of a PV monitoring system on time in a grid-connected PV park
  • 6.2.2 Temporal requirements in the measurement of parameters to control the power quality of the generated signal
  • Temporary measurement intervals
  • Time stamping
  • 6.3 The interconnection between renewable generation and the electricity grid
  • 6.3.1 Temporary requirements for protections
  • Voltage operational limits
  • Frequency operational limits
  • Islanding
  • Response to recovery of normal power grid conditions
  • 6.3.2 The active management of the interconnection
  • 6.3.3 Solutions for the interconnection with electrical grid: smart inverter
  • 6.4 Wide-area network: data model with the IEC 61850 standard for smart grid
  • 6.4.1 Integration of renewables in wide area networks
  • 6.4.2 Detection of faults in cascade and fall of the network (blackout)
  • 6.4.3 Data model with the IEC 61850 standard
  • 6.4.4 IEC 61850 modelling for distributed energy resource applications
  • 6.4.5 Stability with synchrophasors and synchronisation with PTP
  • 6.4.6 Justification of the distributed synchronism through the IEEE 1588 v2 protocol
  • 6.5 Conclusions
  • References

Inspec keywords: power system control; protocols; Global Positioning System; intelligent networks; power system stability; phasor measurement; renewable energy sources

Other keywords: wide geographical area installations; GPS; centralised management system; high-performance electronic systems; intelligent network; PTP standard; network control; local management system; PMU; precision time protocol; IEC 61850 standard; renewable energy resources; Global Positioning System; synchrophasors; network stability

Subjects: Energy resources; Control of electric power systems; Stability in control theory; Power system control; Energy resources and fuels; Power system measurement and metering

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