Optimal energy management in the smart grid
In this chapter, the problem of energy management in smart grids is outlined. Optimized energy management is considered here as the operation of energy and power flow control in the aim of attaining minimum cost or minimum power losses while meeting technical constraints. Of course, according to the type of energy system in which such operation is carried out, the meaningful variables and objectives in the problem may largely change. As the extension of the system increases, the influence of the physical behaviour of the electrical power lines takes a more important role. Power electronics takes instead an increasing influence, as the dimension of the power system decreases although Kirchhoff's laws must always be verified. Energy management is also an interesting issue in multi-carrier energy hubs that implement a recent tendency in energy systems interfacing smart grids. They include different energy resources that need to be managed differently, but in an integrated fashion. This chapter offers an overview of energy management in a small system using a two-level centralized approach.