Measurement and sensing devices for the smart grid
This chapter discusses the measurement and sensing devices used in smart grids. The fundamentals, the background of sensors, and the basic definitions of sensing technologies are presented where the architecture and sensor elements have been debated. A sensing mechanism with the sensing element modes and the measurements error is concisely defined. Furthermore, the classifications of sensors and measurement devices used in smart grids are summarized starting from the classic devices and ending with the most advanced ones. The basic measurements, smart meters, and miscellaneous are presented with illustrations. The use of these devices in the different smart grid sections-generation, transmission, distribution, and end consumer or customer-is succinctly illustrated.