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Measurement and sensing devices for the smart grid

Measurement and sensing devices for the smart grid

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This chapter discusses the measurement and sensing devices used in smart grids. The fundamentals, the background of sensors, and the basic definitions of sensing technologies are presented where the architecture and sensor elements have been debated. A sensing mechanism with the sensing element modes and the measurements error is concisely defined. Furthermore, the classifications of sensors and measurement devices used in smart grids are summarized starting from the classic devices and ending with the most advanced ones. The basic measurements, smart meters, and miscellaneous are presented with illustrations. The use of these devices in the different smart grid sections-generation, transmission, distribution, and end consumer or customer-is succinctly illustrated.

Chapter Contents:

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Sensor development background
  • 4.2.1 Fundamentals of measurements
  • 4.2.2 Measurement system architecture
  • 4.2.2.1 Sensing element
  • 4.2.2.2 Signal conditioning element
  • 4.2.2.3 Signal processing element
  • 4.2.2.4 Data presentation element
  • 4.3 Fundamentals of sensing mechanism
  • 4.3.1 Element model
  • 4.3.1.1 Systematic characteristics
  • 4.3.1.2 Statistical characteristics
  • 4.3.1.3 Dynamic characteristics
  • 4.3.2 Measurements errors
  • 4.3.2.1 Systematic errors
  • 4.3.2.2 Random errors
  • 4.3.2.3 Dynamic errors
  • 4.4 Classifications of smart grid sensors and meters
  • 4.4.1 Basic measurement devices
  • 4.4.1.1 Voltage sensor
  • 4.4.1.2 Current sensor
  • 4.4.1.3 Power meter
  • 4.4.1.4 Power quality meter
  • 4.4.2 Smart measurement devices
  • 4.4.2.1 Phasor measurement unit
  • 4.4.2.2 Smart meter
  • 4.4.3 Miscellaneous sensing devices
  • 4.5 Use of sensors and measuring devices in smart grid
  • 4.5.1 Generation side
  • 4.5.2 Transmission side
  • 4.5.3 Distribution side
  • 4.5.4 Customer side
  • 4.5.5 Summary of sensing devices used in the smart grid
  • 4.6 Conclusions
  • References

Inspec keywords: smart power grids; electric sensing devices; power system measurement

Other keywords: measurements error; smart grid; sensing devices; sensing element modes

Subjects: Power system measurement and metering; Sensing devices and transducers

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