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Smart Grid enables the integration of electric vehicles

Smart Grid enables the integration of electric vehicles

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This chapter is devoted to discussing how the integration of electric vehicles is enabled by the Smart Grid. It started by highlighting the benefits gained from the electrification of transportation and the factors that drive toward transportation electrification. The challenges to EV adoption faced by both customers and utilities are then discussed. This is followed by discussing the types of EV charging stations, which is also known as EV supply equipment (EVSE). Smart charging enabled by Smart Grid is then covered. The load management of EVs using SmartGrid technologies was then discussed. Under this title, several topics were covered including (i) the difference EVs make to electricity load, (ii) optimizing EV charging scheduling using Smart-Grid technologies, (iii) using EVs to meet peak load, and (iv) management of intermittent renewable energy-based generation using EVs and effect of regulation, electricity pricing business models for EVs charging stations on load management of EVs. This is followed by discussing the flexibility of electric vehicles and their integration into Smart Grid, whereby the definition of flexibility in relation to EV was introduced followed by discussing the components related to EV-Smart-Grid integration and then the management of the flexibility provided by EV-stored energy was covered. Finally, automatic charging scheduling of multiple PEV to be connected to a Smart Grid using real-time smart load management (RL-SLM) algorithm was discussed. Among other things covered under this title include (i) the basic components of the RL-SLM algorithm, outlining the formulation of the optimization algorithm used to minimize generation and losses during PEVs charging and (ii) automation of scheduling PEVs charging using the RT-SLM algorithm, whereby the operating principles of the RT-SLM algorithm and its implementation were explained.

Chapter Contents:

  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Types of electric drive vehicle
  • 9.3 Benefits of transportation electrifications
  • 9.4 The driving factors toward transportation electrification
  • 9.5 Challenges to EV adoption
  • 9.5.1 Challenges faced by customers
  • 9.5.2 Challenges faced by utilities
  • 9.5.2.1 High costs of upgrading the infrastructure of utilities' systems
  • 9.5.2.2 Impact of peak load due to uncontrolled charging
  • 9.5.2.3 Impact on local distribution system due to clustering of EVs
  • 9.5.2.4 Impacts due to additional administrative burden
  • 9.5.2.5 Billing issues related to charging EVs
  • 9.6 Types of EV charging systems
  • 9.6.1 L1 AC charging systems
  • 9.6.2 L2 AC charging systems
  • 9.6.3 L3 DC Charging stations
  • 9.7 Smart Grid enables smart charging
  • 9.7.1 Robust, reliable, and secure connectivity
  • 9.7.2 Integration of EV charging infrastructure into demand side management (DSM) system
  • 9.7.3 Provision of distributed intelligence
  • 9.7.4 Provision of a separate meter at the EVSE integrated into AMI
  • 9.7.5 Integration of EV charging infrastructure into DR system
  • 9.7.6 Integration of EV charging infrastructure into distributed automation (DA) system
  • 9.7.7 Coordination with renewable energy-based generation
  • 9.8 Load management of EVs using Smart-Grid technologies
  • 9.8.1 The difference EVs make to electricity load
  • 9.8.2 Optimizing scheduling of EV charging using Smart-Grid technologies
  • 9.8.3 EVs can help in meeting peak load
  • 9.8.4 Management of intermittent renewable energy-based generation using EVs
  • 9.8.5 Effect of regulation, electricity pricing business models for EVs charging stations on load management of EVs
  • 9.9 Flexibility of electric vehicles and their integration into Smart Grid
  • 9.9.1 Definition of flexibility in relation to EV
  • 9.9.2 Components related to EV-Smart-Grid integration
  • 9.9.3 Management of the flexibility provided by EVs stored energy
  • 9.9.3.1 Load shaping aiming to maximize grid capacity utilization
  • 9.9.3.2 Alleviation of peak load increases
  • 9.10 Coordination of multiple plug-in electric vehicle charging in Smart Grids using real-time smart load management (RT-SLM) algorithm
  • 9.10.1 Background and assumptions
  • 9.10.2 RL-SLM coordination algorithm
  • 9.10.2.1 Formulation of the optimization algorithm to minimize generation and losses during PEVs charging
  • 9.10.2.2 Maximum sensitivities selection (MSS) optimization technique for RT-SLM algorithm
  • 9.10.3 Automation of scheduling PEVs charging using RT-SLM algorithm
  • 9.11 Summary
  • References

Inspec keywords: load management; power generation scheduling; battery storage plants; pricing; renewable energy sources; electricity supply industry; smart power grids; electric vehicle charging

Other keywords: EV smart grid integration; electric vehicles integration; real-time smart load management algorithm; EVSE; intermittent renewable energy-based generation management; smart charging; transportation electrification; EV charging scheduling; RL-SLM algorithm; EV supply equipment; smart grid technologies; electricity pricing business models; EV load management; EV charging stations; automatic charging scheduling

Subjects: Transportation; Power system management, operation and economics; Other power stations and plants

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