Decentralised voltage control in smart grids
The conventional electric power grid features on a vertical hierarchical up-down design approach consisting of the generation, transmission and the distribution systems. The new forms of markets with diverse consumers, integration and high penetration of renewable energy resources and the distributed generation call for evolutions of the conventional power grid. The next-generation power grid, namely smart grid, is meant to overcome the existing challenges and to improve the quality of the energy service and generation. Enhanced quality, improved controllability, higher reliability and security, demand-side management (DSM), smart appliances and technologies are some motives for the smart grid. Disassembling and reorganising the conventional grid hierarchy, communication, real-time advanced metering infrastructure, grid optimisation and computational intelligence are the main aspects of the smart grid development to achieve the targeted environmental and the economic benefits.