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Frequency-domain power theory and metering of harmonic-pollution responsibility

Frequency-domain power theory and metering of harmonic-pollution responsibility

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In non-sinusoidal and unbalanced systems, the definitions of apparent power and its power resolutions are still a topic that remained controversial in electrical engineering community. Thus, the various definitions were proposed in the literature, and different ones are encouraged by the standards focussed on power measurement. In addition, the guidelines and standards on the limitation of harmonic pollution do not include any method to determine the harmonic-producing consumers, and the conventional harmonic-pollution metering index as current total harmonic distortion is not capable of metering consumer's harmonic-pollution responsibility due to the fact that it depends on the distortion of utility side's supply voltage. Therefore, to fulfil this gap, for the harmonic-source detection and sharing harmonic responsibility between utility and consumer sides, several methods and indices are proposed in the literature. In this chapter, both frequency-domain power theory and harmonic-pollution metering approaches are summarized, and they are qualitatively and quantitatively analysed to clearly show their principles, limits, advantages and disadvantages.

Chapter Contents:

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Power resolutions for non-sinusoidal single-phase systems
  • 2.2.1 Budeanu's power resolution
  • 2.2.2 Fryze's power resolution
  • 2.2.3 Shepherd and Zakikhani's power resolution
  • 2.2.4 Sharon's power resolution
  • 2.2.5 Kusters and Moore's power resolution
  • 2.2.6 Czarnecki's power resolution
  • 2.2.7 IEEE standard power resolution
  • 2.2.8 Balci and Hocaoglu's power resolution
  • 2.3 Power resolutions for non-sinusoidal and unbalanced three-phase systems
  • 2.3.1 Vector apparent power and its resolution
  • 2.3.2 Arithmetic apparent power
  • 2.3.3 Buchollz's apparent power and its resolutions
  • 2.3.3.1 Resolution contained in DIN standard 40110
  • 2.3.3.2 Resolution proposed by Czarnecki
  • 2.3.3.3 Resolution proposed by Balci and Hocaoglu
  • 2.3.4 IEEE standard apparent power and its resolution
  • 2.4 Practical implementation of apparent powers and their power resolutions included in IEEE standard 1459 and DIN standard 40110
  • 2.4.1 LabView blocks of developed power meter
  • 2.4.2 Measurement results
  • 2.4.2.1 Case I: distorted-unbalanced voltage and single-phase resistive load
  • 2.4.2.2 Case II: distorted-unbalanced voltage and three identical resistive loads in star connection
  • 2.4.2.3 Case III: sinusoidal-balanced voltage and three identical resistive loads in star connection
  • 2.4.2.4 Case IV: distorted-unbalanced voltage and four identical resistive loads in star connection
  • 2.5 Metering of harmonic-pollution responsibility
  • 2.5.1 The indices based on active power direction method
  • 2.5.2 The methods based on the harmonic analysis of the system
  • 2.5.2.1 Superposition and projection method
  • 2.5.2.2 Critical impedance method
  • 2.5.3 The current decomposition based indices
  • 2.5.3.1 Non-conforming current index
  • 2.5.3.2 Non-linear current index
  • 2.5.4 The methods based on the evaluation of the non-active powers
  • 2.5.4.1 The method based on the comparative evaluation of fundamental harmonic-Sharon's-Fryze's reactive powers
  • 2.5.4.2 The method based on the evaluation of scattered power
  • 2.5.4.3 The method based on the evaluation of Budeanu's distortion power
  • 2.5.4.4 The method based on the evaluation of IEEE standard 1459 power components
  • 2.6 The statistical evaluation of the HGI, NLI and Ds harmonic source detection approaches for different load types under several supply voltage waveforms
  • 2.7 Conclusions
  • References

Inspec keywords: power measurement; power meters; harmonic distortion

Other keywords: electrical engineering community; apparent power; frequency-domain power metering; nonsinusoidal systems; harmonic-producing consumers; harmonic-pollution responsibility; harmonic-pollution metering index; frequency-domain power theory; total harmonic distortion; power resolutions; utility side supply voltage; power measurement; harmonic-source detection; unbalanced systems

Subjects: Power system measurement and metering

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