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Power quality definitions

Power quality definitions

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The power quality (PQ) can take into the different behavior of the electrical signals in power systems, which supply to the loads economically with uninterrupted power supply services, and various influences arise to change the waveform characteristics in electrical signals. PQ was not considered as an important issue in the field of electrical engineering until the entry of electronic equipment. This electronic equipment is more sensitive than electrical equipment. In a human body, if there is any problem in the blood or blood circulation, it will collapse the entire organ system. Likewise, if there are any defects in the PQ, it collapses the entire high sensitive equipment. In a power system, all the equipment are connected linearly. If a problem occurs at one end, it can be felt at the other end of the power system. If a short circuit occurs, it results in the opening of the circuit breaker to run the generator on no-load condition, and after fault clearance, the generator is shifted to on load, which gives a serious impact on all the equipment connected to the power system.

Chapter Contents:

  • 1.1 Introduction to various power quality indices
  • 1.1.1 Why are we concerned about power quality?
  • 1.1.2 Definition of power quality
  • 1.2 Various conventional power quality indices
  • 1.2.1 Harmonics and interharmonic
  • 1.2.1.1 Harmonics
  • 1.2.1.2 Interharmonic
  • 1.2.1.3 Causes
  • 1.2.1.4 Impact
  • 1.2.2 Voltage fluctuations and flicker
  • 1.2.2.1 Causes
  • 1.2.2.2 Effects
  • 1.2.2.3 Reducing effects of the voltage fluctuations for various loads
  • 1.2.3 Voltage unbalance
  • 1.2.3.1 Causes
  • 1.2.3.2 Effects
  • 1.2.3.3 Reduction of the unbalance voltages
  • 1.2.4 Power frequency variations
  • 1.2.4.1 Causes
  • 1.2.4.2 Effects
  • 1.2.4.3 Reduction of the power frequency variations
  • 1.2.5 Transients
  • 1.2.5.1 Impulsive transients
  • 1.2.5.2 Causes
  • 1.2.5.3 Oscillatory transients
  • 1.2.5.4 Cause of transients
  • 1.2.5.5 Effects
  • 1.2.6 Short duration voltage variations
  • 1.2.6.1 Voltage sag
  • 1.2.6.2 Voltage sag effects
  • 1.2.6.3 Voltage swell
  • 1.2.6.4 Effects of swell
  • 1.2.6.5 Preventive measures
  • 1.2.6.6 Effects
  • 1.2.6.7 Over voltage
  • 1.2.6.8 Effect of over voltage
  • 1.2.6.9 Under voltage
  • 1.2.6.10 Preventive measures
  • 1.3 International standards
  • 1.3.1 The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) Standards
  • 1.3.2 American National Standards Institute (IEEE/ ANSI)
  • 1.3.3 British Standards (BS) with IEC Standards
  • 1.3.4 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standards
  • 1.4 Cost of poor power quality
  • 1.4.1 Investment analysis to mitigate costs of power quality
  • 1.4.1.1 The various investment analysis of power quality
  • 1.4.1.2 Deterministic approach to PQ investment analysis
  • 1.4.1.3 Discounted cash flow methods
  • 1.4.1.4 Nondiscounted cash flow methods
  • 1.4.2 Economic impact of power quality disturbances
  • 1.4.2.1 Deterministic analysis method
  • 1.4.2.2 Cost of harmonics in deterministic and stochastic analysis method
  • 1.4.3 Economic mechanisms for improving power quality levels
  • References

Inspec keywords: circuit breakers; short-circuit currents; uninterruptible power supplies; power supply quality

Other keywords: uninterrupted power supply services; waveform characteristics; electrical engineering; power systems; circuit breaker; short circuit; electrical signals; fault clearance; power quality definitions; electronic equipment; blood circulation

Subjects: Switchgear; Power supply quality and harmonics

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