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Biofuels starting materials for hydrogen production

Biofuels starting materials for hydrogen production

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Future developments in energy-efficient processes and potential solutions for the energy-related environmental tasks are coupled with hydrogen-based technologies. Introductory parts of this chapter are focused on the specifics of H2 generation from biomass. Within the framework of this topic, three platforms are compared: conversion of simple sugars, cellulose, and thermochemical conversion of biomass to hydrogen-containing gaseous mixtures. Three approaches for generation of biofuels starting materials for hydrogen production are considered: the first one includes sugars and organic acids; the second one includes lignocellulose, woodchips, etc.; finally, the third approach considers the possible routes of biomass gasification. In all cases, the hydrogen needs to be separated (to be recovered) from the hydrogen-containing multicomponent gaseous mixtures of biogenic origin. Membrane-based gas separation processes are considered for H2 recovery from gaseous sources, including (1) estimation of commercial and lab-scale polymeric membranes for recovery of H2 from gaseous mixtures, containing additionally CO2, CO, N2, CH4, H2S, with calculation of standard membrane process itself; (2) membrane contactors for hydrogen recovery from H2/CO2 mixtures; (3) combined membrane/pressure-swing adsorption (PSA) systems for hydrogen recovery from gaseous mixtures of biogenic origin. It is shown that H2 recovery can be successfully realized as a combination of standard membrane method (H2 preconcentrating) and PSA (H2 conditioning). Potential of whole process (biomass treatment and H2 recovery as a fuel) requires the active generation of knowledge for development of the desired bioprocesses and highly selective membranes.

Chapter Contents:

  • Abstract
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Hydrogen from biomass
  • 7.2.1 First generation of starting materials for biohydrogen production
  • 7.2.2 Second generation of starting materials for biohydrogen production (lignocellulose, biomass, algae, etc.)
  • 7.2.2.1 Mechanical pretreatment
  • 7.2.2.2 Physical-chemical pretreatment
  • 7.2.2.3 Hot steam and steam explosion pretreatment
  • 7.2.2.4 Hot-water pretreatment
  • 7.2.2.5 Chemical pretreatment
  • 7.2.2.6 Biological pretreatment
  • 7.2.2.7 Combination of pretreatment methods
  • 7.2.2.8 Detoxification of pretreated biomass
  • 7.2.3 Third generation of starting materials for biohydrogen production
  • 7.3 Membrane recovery of hydrogen: basic regularities for polymeric membranes; classification of membranes
  • 7.2.3.1 Anaerobic dark fermentation for hydrogen production
  • 7.2.3.2 Anaerobic photofermentation for hydrogen production
  • 7.2.3.3 Thermochemical treatment of biomass
  • 7.3.1 Application and potential of standard membrane technology for hydrogen recovery from gaseous mixtures
  • 7.3.1.1 Gas separation by nonporous polymeric membranes
  • 7.3.1.2 Commercially available polymers and membrane modules
  • 7.3.1.3 Calculation of H2 concentrating from multicomponent mixtures by membrane method
  • 7.3.2 Membrane contactors for hydrogen recovery from gaseous mixtures of bio-origin
  • 7.3.3 Combined membrane systems for hydrogen recovery from gaseous mixtures of technogenic and bio-origin
  • 7.4 Prospects of commercial membranes application for biohydrogen recovery
  • 7.5 Conclusion and summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • List of abbreviations
  • References

Inspec keywords: mixtures; hydrogen production; renewable materials; biofuel; membranes

Other keywords: lignocellulose; thermochemical conversion; gaseous mixtures; standard membrane method; biofuels starting materials; energy-efficient processes; hydrogen-based technologies; hydrogen-containing gaseous mixtures; bioprocesses; biogenic origin; biomass treatment; membrane-pressure swing adsorption; hydrogen-containing multicomponent gaseous mixtures; hydrogen production

Subjects: Biofuel and biomass resources; Engineering materials; Hydrogen fuel; Biotechnology industry; Fuel processing industry; Hydrogen storage and technology; Photosynthesis and bioenergy conversion

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