Transition metal catalysts for hydrogen production by low-temperature steam reforming of methane
This chapter discusses different catalytic systems based on transition metals (nickel, rhodium, ruthenium, platinum) for the hydrogen production by steam reforming (SR) of methane at low temperature (≤823 K). The design of robust catalysts for low temperature (≤823 K) reforming processes is fundamental for an optimized integration between reforming reactors and concomitant separation/purification steps that usually work at low temperature; therefore, the preparation methods will be also described and compared, especially, considering their contribution to develop catalytic materials with properties as high surface area, high active metal dispersion, low particle size, resistance to carbon formation, opportune metal load and so on. All these features and others, which will be discussed along this chapter, are very important to overcome deactivation phenomena related and in some cases enhanced by reforming processes conducted at low temperature. The aim of this chapter is to analyse, from a different point of view, some synthesis routes, generally reported in literature as methods to prepare catalysts for high temperature reforming processes. Thus, correlations between chemical- physical/morphological properties and catalytic activity towards low-temperature SR of methane will be evidenced in order to explore the potential to use the prepared materials for application in integrated processes that combine lowtemperature SR reactions with separation/purification step.