Catalysts for hydrogen production from renewable raw materials, by-products and waste
Catalytic materials used in hydrogen production processes starting from different raw materials (e.g. fossil (oil, gas and coal), renewables (primary and secondary bio-based raw materials) and waste materials (municipal solid waste (MSW), refuse-derived fuel (RDF), agro-food residues, manure)) are reviewed highlighting the most relevant advances of the last 5 years. The best results obtained mainly in reforming reactions and supercritical water gasification processes, in terms of improved performances such as higher hydrogen yield, lower by-products, coke, tar formation, as well as milder reactions conditions, are discussed and compared taking into account the balance between costs and performances of the used catalytic materials. Moreover, still open issues for the application of these processes (e.g. catalysts stability, low resistance to N, S poisoning) have been pointed out.