Environmental impacts of cogeneration

Environmental impacts of cogeneration

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Application of cogeneration may have both positive and negative effects on depletion of non-renewable energy resources, on the environment, and on the society. Environmental effects, in particular, can be distinguished in effects on air, water, and soil quality, as well as on noise and vibration. Since cogeneration increases the efficiency of fuel utilization, it can lead to decreased emission of pollutants to the environment. Furthermore, since the whole fuel cycle includes steps such as exploration, extraction, refining, processing, transportation, and storage, not only the direct emissions from the use (burning) of fuel, but also the emissions of the whole fuel cycle can be decreased. However, depending on the cogeneration technology and the fuel used, it is possible that certain emissions may increase with cogeneration.

Chapter Contents:

  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Definitions and emissions impact categories
  • 8.3 Effects on air quality
  • 8.3.1 Irreversibility, fuel use, and emissions
  • 8.3.2 Estimation of direct gaseous emissions
  • Estimation of CO2 emissions
  • Estimation of SO2 emissions
  • Estimation of emissions by use of empirical data
  • 8.3.3 Local and global balance of direct gaseous emissions
  • 8.3.4 The various substances that affect global warming
  • 8.3.5 Allocation of fuel and emissions of a cogeneration system to its products
  • 8.3.6 Cumulative emissions - the case of greenhouse gases
  • 8.3.7 Dispersion and impacts of pollutants on the environment and the society - the external environmental cost
  • 8.3.8 Thermo-ecological cost
  • Presentation of the methodology
  • Application examples
  • 8.3.9 Thermo-ecological indicators of environmental benefits and results for selected bio-CHPs
  • 8.4 Effects on water and soil quality
  • 8.4.1 Effects on water quantity and quality
  • 8.4.2 Effects on soil and water quality caused by the emissions
  • 8.5 Legal emission limits and emission trading
  • 8.6 Noise and vibration
  • References

Inspec keywords: environmental factors; cogeneration; pollution control

Other keywords: fuel cycle; nonrenewable energy resources; environmental impacts; cogeneration technology; air quality; water quality; fuel utilization; decreased pollutant emission; soil quality

Subjects: Environmental factors; Thermal power stations and plants; Pollution detection and control

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