Cogeneration technologies

Cogeneration technologies

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This chapter gives an overview of the available cogeneration technologies and their performance. The basis of cogeneration is always that the bulk of the heat released during a process of converting fuel energy into mechanical or electrical energy is not wasted but economically used. The machine that converts the fuel into mechanical energy and heat is often called the prime mover. Common prime movers are gas turbines, reciprocating engines and more recently also fuel cells. Mechanical energy can be converted into electrical energy with an electric generator, whereas heat can be transformed into chill with an absorption chiller. Heat exchangers are an integral part of cogeneration installations. Heat pumps are also increasingly used in such installations.

Chapter Contents:

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Gas-turbine-based cogeneration systems
  • 3.2.1 The gas turbine concept and its fuel efficiency
  • 3.2.2 Exhaust gas emissions limits for gas turbines
  • 3.2.3 Controllability of the power and heat output
  • 3.2.4 Maintenance aspects
  • 3.2.5 The effect of ambient conditions on gas turbine performance
  • 3.2.6 Special designs
  • 3.3 Reciprocating internal combustion-engine-based cogeneration systems
  • 3.3.1 The background and basic concept
  • 3.3.2 The practical gas engine
  • 3.3.3 The fuel efficiency
  • 3.3.4 The heat sources
  • 3.3.5 Controllability of the electricity and heat output
  • 3.3.6 Fuel-air mixture preparation and control
  • 3.3.7 Maintenance aspects
  • 3.3.8 Exhaust gas emissions limits for reciprocating engines
  • 3.3.9 Response time to required load changes
  • 3.4 Fuel-cell-based cogeneration systems
  • 3.4.1 The concept of a fuel cell
  • 3.4.2 The phosphoric acid fuel cell
  • 3.4.3 The molten carbonate fuel cell
  • 3.4.4 The solid oxide fuel cell
  • 3.5 Rankine and combined cycle cogeneration systems
  • 3.5.1 General overview
  • 3.5.2 Steam-based cogeneration
  • 3.5.3 The organic Rankine cycle
  • 3.6 Miscellaneous technologies with minor potential for cogeneration
  • 3.6.1 Thermo-electric generators
  • 3.6.2 Thermo-photo-voltaic generators
  • 3.6.3 Thermo-ionic converters
  • 3.6.4 Stirling engines
  • References

Inspec keywords: heat exchangers; heat pumps; gas turbines; electric generators; fuel cells; cogeneration

Other keywords: cogeneration technologies; cogeneration installations; gas turbines; common prime movers; reciprocating engines; fuel energy conversion; electric generator; fuel cells; heat pumps; mechanical energy; absorption chiller; heat exchangers; electrical energy

Subjects: Fuel cells; Gas-turbine power stations and plants; Power and plant engineering (mechanical engineering); Heat and thermodynamic processes (mechanical engineering); Thermal energy conversion (heat engines and heat pumps); Fuel cells

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