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Biomimetic coatings of calcium phosphates on titanium alloys

Biomimetic coatings of calcium phosphates on titanium alloys

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Metallic orthopedic implants have been widely used to repair skeletal defects and poorly functioning joints for many years. Among them, titanium (Ti) and its alloys can be described as the most frequently used orthopedic metals, due to their unique properties, such as a good mechanical match with hard tissues, resistance to corrosion in body fluids, and being lightweight. However, Ti and its alloys fail to show bioactivity which is a very important issue for the integration of implants with bone tissue. Therefore, hydroxyapatite [HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2], which is the main constituent of the inorganic part of natural bone, has been traditionally used as a coating to achieve the promoted bioactivity on the metallic implant surfaces. There are various techniques for coating HA on metallic implants such as plasma spraying, electrodeposition, pulsed-laser deposition, sputtering, sol-gel, and biomimetics. Simulated body fluid (SBF) used in biomimetic calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings basically mimics the inorganic composition, pH, and temperature of normal human blood plasma. Normally, a Ti alloy implant can be biomimetically coated in 14-28 days depending on the desired coating thickness if SBF solution is replenished every 2 days. Therefore, more concentrated formulations of SBF such as 1.5x SBF, 5x SBF, and 10x SBF were suggested for faster deposition rates with a drawback of decreased solution stability. To deposit CaPs on Ti alloy substrates, there are many different formulations of SBF with varying ionic compositions of certain ions, such as chloride (Cl-), bicarbonate (HCO3 -), and sulfate (SO4 2-), and with different buffers such as tri(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS) and Hank's balanced salt solution (HEPES). In recent studies, it was shown that it is also possible to coat CaPs doped with specific ions or loaded with antibacterial agents and bone stimulating factors via biomimetic routes.

Chapter Contents:

  • Abstract
  • 1.1 Biomimetics
  • 1.2 Simulated body fluid (SBF) as a coating solution
  • 1.3 HA coating of titanium alloys
  • 1.4 Functionalization of HA coating via biomimetic method
  • 1.5 Conclusions
  • References

Inspec keywords: sputtered coatings; prosthetics; pulsed laser deposition; tissue engineering; plasma arc sprayed coatings; biomimetics; sputter deposition; blood; bone; titanium alloys; corrosion resistance; plasma arc spraying; antibacterial activity; pH; electrodeposition; bioceramics; calcium compounds; orthopaedics; sol-gel processing

Other keywords: normal human blood plasma temperature; bone stimulating factors; pulsed-laser deposition; HA coating; biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings; sputtering; inorganic composition; orthopedic metals; Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2; buffers; implant integration; Ti alloy implant; mechanical match; hard tissues; ionic compositions; chloride; titanium alloys; sol-gel method; tri(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane; electrodeposition; solution stability; skeletal defect repair; corrosion resistance; simulated body fluid; functioning joints; deposition rates; plasma spraying; concentrated formulations; coating thickness; bioactivity; time 14 d to 28 d; hydroxyapatite; bicarbonate; sulfate; metallic orthopedic implants; antibacterial agents; metallic implant surfaces; natural bone; SBF solution; pH; Hank's balanced salt solution

Subjects: Prosthetics and other practical applications; Plasma applications in manufacturing and materials processing; Prosthetics and orthotics; Deposition by sputtering; Biomedical materials; Spray coating techniques; Other thin film deposition techniques; Deposition from liquid phases; Electrochemistry and electrophoresis; Deposition from liquid phases (melts and solutions); Pulsed laser deposition; Pulsed laser deposition; Preparation of ceramics and refractories; Surface treatment and degradation of metals and alloys; Sputter deposition

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