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Embedded control systems

Embedded control systems

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In this chapter, we make a concise overview of embedded control systems and discuss some aspects of the corresponding hardware and software which is used in these systems. The embedded control systems are digital systems and their performance is affected by sampling and quantization errors. That is why, we present some basic elements of fixed-point and floating-point computations and describe the rounding errors associated with these computations. In case of fixed-point arithmetic, the emphasis is put on the scaling problem, which is the most important issue in using such arithmetic. We describe briefly the stages of embedded controller design, controller simulation, and implementation.

Chapter Contents:

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Structure and elements of embedded control systems
  • 1.2.1 Typical block diagram
  • 1.2.2 A/D and D/A conversion
  • 1.2.3 Sensors
  • 1.2.4 Actuators
  • 1.2.5 Processors
  • 1.2.6 Software
  • 1.2.6.1 Operational systems
  • 1.2.6.2 Protocols
  • 1.3 Sampling and aliasing
  • 1.4 Fixed-point arithmetic
  • 1.4.1 Fixed-point numbers
  • 1.4.2 Scaling
  • 1.4.2.1 Binary-point-only scaling
  • 1.4.2.2 Slope and bias scaling
  • 1.4.2.3 Unspecified scaling
  • 1.4.3 Range and precision
  • 1.4.4 Fixed-point arithmetic operations
  • 1.4.4.1 Addition and subtraction
  • 1.4.4.2 Multiplication
  • 1.5 Floating-point arithmetic
  • 1.5.1 Floating-point numbers
  • 1.5.2 IEEE arithmetic
  • 1.5.3 Floating-point arithmetic operations
  • 1.6 Quantization effects
  • 1.6.1 Truncation and roundoff
  • 1.6.2 Quantization errors in A/D conversion
  • 1.7 Design stages
  • 1.7.1 Controller design
  • 1.7.2 Closed-loop system simulation
  • 1.7.3 Embedded code generation
  • 1.8 Hardware configuration
  • 1.8.1 Microprocessing architectures
  • 1.8.2 Hardware description language
  • 1.8.3 Module level development
  • 1.8.4 System level development
  • 1.9 Software configuration
  • 1.9.1 Board support package
  • 1.9.2 Application programing interface
  • 1.9.3 Code generation
  • 1.9.4 Code validation
  • 1.10 Notes and references

Inspec keywords: floating point arithmetic; digital control; quantisation (signal); control system synthesis; embedded systems

Other keywords: quantization errors; embedded controller design; digital systems; embedded control systems; controller simulation; floating-point computations; fixed-point computations; rounding errors

Subjects: Control system analysis and synthesis methods; Discrete control systems; Signal processing theory

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